According to the Instructions for Application for Travel Document, if you applied for asylum on or after April 1, 1997, your asylum status may be terminated if the U.S. Government determines that you have voluntarily availed yourself of the protection of your country of nationality or, if stateless, country of last habitual residence.
Travelling back to the country where you experienced past persecution or claim a fear of future persecution is possible but highly discouraged. Your refugee or asylum status will most probably be terminated, as in such cases USCIS considers that you actually did not experience past persecution, you were not eligible for refugee or asylum status in the first place and this was a fraud. Therefore, be prepared to explain why do you want to travel back to the country from which you fled.
Thus, in order not to lose your refugee or asylum status, we strongly recommend to consult with an immigration attorney before filing for a Refugee Travel Document.