Usually, the processing time of Form I-131, Application for Travel Document, is around 3 month. However, in certain cases, USCIS may issue a Travel Document much sooner.
The expedited processing is possible in the following cases: extreme emergent situation; humanitarian situation; severe financial loss to a company or individual; compelling interest of USCIS; non-profit status of organization whose request is of the cultural and social interests of the United States Department of Defense or national interest situation (in this case the request must be submitted by an official US Government entity).
To request expedited processing of an application for a Re-entry Permit, a Refugee Travel Document, or an Advance Parole Document include a cover letter, a written explanation of the reason for your expedited request. Add all the supporting evidence available to demonstrate that this is truly an urgent need and that one or even few of the above-mentioned expedite criteria is met. Examples of acceptable supporting evidence may include: medical documents, proof of a fatality, death certificate, travel records.
You may additionally type or print the word EXPEDITE in the top right corner of the application in black ink. Also, USCIS recommends that you provide your e-mail address and fax number with an expedite request.
Within 7-10 days after the filing of Form I-131 and related documents for the expedited processing, you may contact the National Customer Service Center to follow up on your request.
Note that any mistakes/omissions in the submitted documents will significantly delay the process, so be sure to prepare and complete them properly on the first try. Besides, it can be difficult to obtain a Travel Document on expedited basis. So whenever possible apply for a Travel Document well in advance. And do not forget that you must get your Travel Document before leaving the United States.